The influence of altitude and habitat structure on three breeding wheatears and two
rock nuthatches was studied at Peramagroon Mountain in Kurdistan, northern Iraq.
These studied birds were distributed differently in various vegetation zones and
habitats at c. 850- 2600 m asl. Ecological segregation between the wheatears was
also observed. Depending on the methodology implied, the logistic regression
analysis revealed that density and distribution of the Kurdistan Wheatear O.
xanthoprymna is only and significantly (P < 0.001) related to altitude, whereas the
occurrence of the Eastern Black-eared Wheatear O. melanoleuca is negatively
associated with stone and grass cover (P < 0.005), but its abundance increases with
increase of tree densities (P < 0.001). Contrary, Finsch‟s Wheatear O. finschii were
found in areas where the stone (P < 0.005) and grass (P < 0.05) were dominant and
these are strongly related. However, in rock nuthatches, the Western Rock Nuthatch
S. neumayer and Eastern Rock Nuthatch S. tephronota, altitude and habitat
preferences were not significant factors in their distribution (P > 0.05). It seems that
interspecific interaction play an important role and caused ecological release in these
birds, especially in the Western Rock Nuthatch S. neumayer
Cite this article
Majeed, K., 2012. Distribution of Breeding Wheatears and Rock Nuthatches According to Elevation and Habitat at Peramagroon Mountain in Kurdistan, Northern Iraq (Doctoral dissertation, Thesis presented in part-fulfillment of the degree of Master of Science. School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich).